Determination of temperament

Dr. Purushothaman
October 15, 2013

Since structures and functions of organs and persons, as a whole, are determined by their respective temperaments. The physiological functions and variations their of are used as means to determine Mizaj of an individual or of an organ.

The determination of temperament is thus based on the signs and symptoms, which reflect the temperament of an individual most exponentially. According to the eminent Unani physicians like, Majoosi and Jurjani, determinants of temperament are 5 in number while Ibn Sina gave 10 determinants to assess the temperament of an individual or of an organ.

Now, these 10 determinants, are usually used to assess the temperament by physicians which are the following

1. Malmas (palpation):

The state of warmth and coldness could be determined by touch. Similarly, roughness, firmness and softness of the skin and its appendages, especially nails could also be felt by palpation that indicates Rutoobat and Yaboosat of the body.

2. Lahm wa Shahm (flesh & fat):

Excessive musculature indicates hot and moist temperament whereas excess quantity of fat is attributed to cold and moist one.

3. Sha'r (hair):

To draw a conclusion about Mizaj from the state of hair is well pronounced.

Different states of hair are seen as:

The higher rate of growth of the hair indicates hot dry temperament whereas it is decreased in cold temperament.
Black dark colour of hair suggests hot temperament whereas reddish color is associated with "Mo'tadil "temperament.
Coarse hair is generally found in hot temperament.
Coarse and straight hairs are generally found in hot and moist temperament.
Coarse and curly hair is found in hot dry temperament. Fine and scanty hair are present in the people having cold and dry temperament.
Wide and dense distribution of hair on the chest indicates higher degree of hot temperament of the heart.
Wide distribution of hair all over the body in general (extremites & trunk) is suggestive of hot temperament of the body.
4. Laune badan (complexon of the body):

Reddish colour of the body is indicative of Har Mizaj. Whitish colour of the body indicates cold temperament where as yellowness of the body indicates hot dry temperament.

5. Haiyate Aa'za (physique):

The morphological features of organs are indicative of their respective temperaments

e.g. broad chest, prominence of veins and joints, well developed muscles, rapid and strong pulse, larger extremities and height of an individual all are indicative of hot temperament.

Narrow and small chest, inconspicuous veins, hidden joints, short stature, short extremities, slow and weak pulse and excessive fat deposition are the signs of cold temperament.

Since heat is a driving factor for various purposeful activities and development of the organs and parts of the body, so well developed organs or parts and increased physiological functions or activities of the body are indicative of hot temperament.

6. Kaifiate infe'al ( responsiveness of organs/ Aa'za ka mutassir hona):

Each person's body or organs get affected by Kafiate Arba like Hararat, Burudat, Rutoobat and Yaboosat as per their temperaments furnished to them from mother.

A person having cold temperament will be more influenced by coldness as compared to hot temperament. Similarly, if a person having hot temperament he is more influenced by heat. He feels hot, even, if there is a little bit excess in amount of heat in the environment. Similarly, persons having Ratab Yabis Mizaj can be imagined or understood.

7. Naum wa Yaqza (sleep and wakefulness):

Excess of sleep indicates preponderance of Rutoobat (fluid) and Buroodat (cold). Similarly, wakefulness beyond normal duration is indicative of Mizaj Yabis of the body (especially of brain).

8. Afaa'le Aa'za (functions of the organs):

Functions of the organs reflect their functional and structural integrity. An increase or acceleration in the functions and actions of the body beyond the physiological limit is an indication of hot temperament of the body. For example rapid growth of the body nails and hair is an indication of hot temperament.

9. Fuzlate badan(excretae):

There are some types of fuzlate badan like, urine, faeces, sweat and nasal secretion, excreted out from the body

If these are being excreted out properly from the body of a person, it will be indication of Mo'tadil Mizaj of the same. And if these are not excreted out in right way, it will be an indication of Sue Mizaj of the body. For example, a person is excreting more sweat with pungent /bad odour; it will be indication of hot temperament of the same.

Similarly, if a person has semi-solid feces with a pungent odour, it will indicate the hot temperament of the same.

10. Infe a'a-late Nafsaniah (State of the psyche):

There are so many emotional states/ reflexes which are indicative of temperament. These reflexes include mainly anger, anguish, feeling of sorrow, velar, activeness, decisiveness, well mannerism, and considerations. All these indicate a hot temperament. If these emotional reflexes persist beyond a reasonable limit, it will be an indication of dryness in the temperament (Sue Mizaj Yabis) in addition to heat.


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