Causes of Black Spots on Tongue

Dr. Purushothaman
October 23, 2019

Tasting food is not possible without a tongue. Finding whether a person is healthy or not, can be indicated by the color of the tongue. A healthy tongue is nothing but pink in color. During certain circumstances, the color of the tongue change. The appearance of black spots on the tongue can be worrying. Such color changes can due to the daily habits or even due to oral cancer. Living healthy can to an extensive help in keeping off from harmful diseases.

When black spots appear on the surface of the tongue, it is very important to find out why they appear. Apart from being anxious over the spots on the tongue, it would be wise enough to consult a doctor at the earliest. Some of the causes of the black spots on tongue can be due to:


Hyperpigmentation is a condition where the pigment might spread in an excessive way. The hyperpigmentation on the surface of the tongue can be signs of melanocytes. People affected with hyperpigmentation do not have any kind of neurological problems. The main reason for the hyperpigmentation is not known. But studies show that certain factors affect hyperpigmentation of the tongue. These include hormonal changes, anemia, weakness, the chemical changes taking place in the body and even chronic stress.

People affected with hyperpigmentation of the dorsum of the tongue usually experience stress and fatigue. This might be due to loss of appetite, sleeplessness and lack of interest in doing the day to day activities. Those who do not follow good oral habits too tend to get affected by black tongue.

Even though the black spots are painless, it can be less attractive. The best way to remove these would be to choose laser surgery. Consumption of foods like aloe vera, potato juice and lemon juice can lighten these spots found on the tongue.

Tongue cancer

Tongue cancer is a new form of cancer. It can be included as oral cancer. Cancer affects various organs of the body, including the tongue. Though cancer is a dangerous disease that can cause death, it can be cured during early stages. Lukoplakia or black spots on the tongue, thickening of the outer surface and even the formation of ulcer can be seen as the signs of tongue cancer. As time passes, these ulcers will thicken like secondary infection on the surface of the tongue.

Major causes of tongue cancer can be continuous biting of the tongue, consuming betel and chewing of tobacco. Maintaining oral hygiene, that is brushing the teeth regularly, providing care for the area of the tongue that is hurt and avoiding those foods that can create irritation to the mouth like consumption of tobacco, can help in avoiding tongue cancer to a very large extent

Hair on tongue

Hair or fur on the tongue, even though is harmless, can be very unattractive. This usually appears on the pink part of the tongue. The major causes of this condition are excessive consumption of antibiotic medicines, if one is on a soft diet, if one consumes excessive amounts of alcohol or smokes in a large amount and also if the person has poor oral hygiene.

Treatment of this condition is not very complicating. All you need to do is quit alcohol, smoking and get the oral hygiene in check. Even after following the above steps, if the condition persists, then it can be due to Candida Albicans or the fungal infection of the mouth. Taking antifungal medicines can give relief from the fungus.

Oral Fibroma

Though this is not to be considered as oral cancer, people have perceptions that this condition is cancer. The formation of black bumps on the top of the tongue later on forms fibroma, which is formed due to the continuous biting of the tongue. This condition does not cause any kind of pain to the tongue, but gradually it becomes unattractive.

Treating oral fibroma is possible only through surgery. After the removal of the lump, there is no guarantee that it will not come again. If this is not removed, it will grow and will spread to other areas and ultimately lead to a lot of other health problems in the mouth. Preventing firbroma is to become cautious not the bite or injure the tongue more often.

Tongue piercing

It is seen that those who pierce their tongue also tend to have black spots on their tongue. This will gradually appear. If not, you need to consult a doctor. Tongue piercing can also bring in the risks of fungal infections of the tongue. This later on can develop black spots on the surface of the tongue.

Tongue injuries

Usually tongue injuries happen at times of installation of dental appliances. This can lead to the appearance of dark spots on the tongue. It is always better to see that the tongue is not hurt in a repeated mode. In case of the use of dental equipment, do make sure that the tongue is not hurt. If it is accidentally hurt, make it a point to treat it at the earliest.

Other reasons for black spots

Reactions and even allergy to particular drugs, consumption of alcohol, smoking, pregnancy, consumption of certain beverages and even foods can cause black spots on the tongue. Improving the lifestyle and following a healthy regime can to an extent avoid this condition. Taking early treatment for injured tongue also can prevent this condition.

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