Adolescence, the most important period of human life, has been defined in a number of ways, from different points of views as a period of physical development, a chronological age span or a sociological phenomenon. The term adolescence comes from the Latin verb “Adolescence”, meaning “to grow into maturity”. In this sense, adolescence is a process rather than a period, a process of achieving the desirable growth, attitudes, beliefs and methods for effective participation in society as the emerging adult. It is the process of transition from childhood to adulthood with an accelerated physical, mental, biochemical, social and emotional development. It is the period not only will be a boy or girl attains physiological maturity, but the adolescent also becomes increasing independent. Viewed as a socio-cultural phenomenon adolescence is a period in one’s life when society ceases to regard him/her as a child but does not yet accord him/her full adult status, role or function.
Just as every stage of life, adolescence has special problems which must be understood and solver by appropriate techniques based on a sound knowledge of the psychology and physiology of the adolescence.
In adolescence new sensations, features and body proportion emerge. The physical changes occurring during adolescence symbolized with the termination of childhood. As a result of glandular changes and changes in the size and proportion of the internal organs, the pubescent child suffers at times from physical disturbances.
A structural feature of special concern in adolescence which brings problem sometimes is height. If an adolescent boy is not up to the expected height, his ego may suffer from failure to live up to expected physical standards. In contrary very tall girls face humors from peer groups.
b) Weight / obesity:
A fat person meets constant frustration, hears humorous allusions and clothes also don’t fit them smartly. Therefore over weight is a big issue for teenagers and they constantly try to adopt dieting pattern to stay slim.
c) Motor development disorder:
Among the effects of physiological changes are problems associated with motor development which have far reaching implications. Both sexes decline in gross physical activities during adolescence, because there is less enjoyment in such activities. The significant skeletal changes are in the long bones and large muscle groups, where that poor co-ordination is found.
One of the characteristic features of adolescence, onset of menstruation is a traumatic experience for a considerable number of adolescent girls because of its sudden and dramatic onset. Many physical problems like abdominal pain; nausea, vomiting, and feeling of uneasiness are associate with it.
e) Voice change:
Changes in the voice in the male are initiates in early puberty. The adolescent boy may feel embarrassed by unexpected shifts in his tone until he learns to handle his voice.
It is extremely common among adolescents and needs to be addressed because of its impact on self esteem.
g) Iron deficiency anemia:
Mainly among adolescent girls, due to excessive menstrual loss, inadequate iron intake due to poor eating habit and early marriage with pregnancy.
Mainly due to inadequate food intake. Likeness towards junk food and empty calorie foods.