Scoliosis is defined as curvature of the spine in the coronal (front view) plane. Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of spinal deformity confronting orthopedic surgeons. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is present in 2 to 4 percent of children between 10 and 16 years of age. This form of scoliosis affects girls more than boys. It is defined as a lateral curvature of the spine greater than 10 degrees accompanied by vertebral rotation. It is thought to be a multigene dominant condition with variable phenotypic expression.
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves are classified by their location in the spine. Curves can occur in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in various combinations. There are many causes of Idiopathic adolescent scoliosis. Scoliosis appears to run in certain families, so it may be hereditary. Significant research is ongoing in the field of genetics. Curves progress rapidly during growth spurts, perhaps showing a tie to hormonal causes. Structural and Biomechanical Changes also cause of Idiopathic adolescent scoliosis. Some forms of scoliosis are associated with central nervous system disorders.
Idiopathic scoliosis could be related to factors that affect body alignment. If a kid has problems with attitude, balance, and body regularity, it could affect the means the spine is positioned. If the problems are chronic, it may disrupt the way the spine and muscles develop. The treatment chosen for an adolescent with idiopathic scoliosis will vary depending upon the severity of the curve, the age of the patient. Surgery is generally only considered in patients who have continual pain, difficulty breathing, significant disfigurement, or a steadily worsening curve angle.
Bracing is usually considered with curves between 25 and 40 degrees-particularly if the patient is still growing and the curve is likely to get bigger. Non-operative treatment of AIS focuses on preventing curve progression during the growing years. Brace treatment of scoliosis remains the only documented effective non-operative treatment of progressive idiopathic scoliosis. Brace treatment often accompanies exercises to maintain low back flexibility, mobility of the chest cavity, and overall cardiovascular fitness. Exercises alone have not demonstrated a benefit to stop or slow the curve progression.